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Further Reading in multicultural health services

Culture Care Connection gathers additional reading from local and national sources on the topic of cultural competence.

2015 Health Equity of Care Report. This report presents data that explores the degree to which standards of quality care are achieved by health care providers caring for patients in Minnesota health care programs—patients who represent a population with lower socioeconomic status, as well as a disproportionate share of persons of color, American Indians, persons with disabilities, and elders compared with the overall population in Minnesota. This second-year report deepens understanding of health care disparities in Minnesota with the addition of two major features: four patient experience measures segmented by race and Hispanic ethnicity; and comparable medical group reporting of the five quality measures included in last year’s report. MN Community Measurement (119-page PDF)

2014 National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report. This report identifies gaps where some populations receive poor or worse care than others and tracks how these gaps are changing over time. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (38-page PDF)

A Comprehensive Framework and Preferred Practices for Measuring and Reporting Cultural Competency. The report outlines a comprehensive framework for measuring and reporting cultural competency. It includes the 45 National Quality Forum  endorsed practices to guide health care systems in providing care that is culturally appropriate and patient centered. Full report (116-page PDF) Executive summary (11-page PDF)

Hospitals, Language, and Culture: One Size Does Not Fit All: Meeting the Health Care Needs of Diverse Populations. This qualitative study explored how 60 hospitals across the country provide health care to culturally and linguistically diverse patient populations. It provides a framework for hospitals to develop and employ practices for meeting diverse patient needs. Joint Commission (60-page PDF)

Populations of Color Health Status Report and Updates. Examines demographic and economic profiles, birth related health indicators, mortality rates and cause of death, illness and injury, access to health care, and future data initiatives. Minnesota Department of Health.

Reflections on the CLAS Standards: Best Practices, Innovations, and Horizons. This study reports on innovative and advanced programs in serving disadvantaged populations and offers examples of best practices in the field that are consistent with the National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS). The examples profiled in this study are intended to inform, guide, and facilitate the implementation of CLAS standards in other organizations. Office of Minority Health (97-page PDF)

Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Healthcare. This executive summary reports on factors that contribute to health disparities and found significant variation in the rates of medical procedures by race even when insurance status, income, age and severity of conditions were comparable. Institute of Medicine (45-page PDF)

Caring for Diverse Populations

Additional reading specific to caring for diverse populations.

America’s Health Literacy: Why We Need Accessible Health Information. This issue brief from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services summarizes key findings of the National Assessment of Adult Literacy, including results for specific racial and ethnic groups, as well as elderly populations.

Engaging Minority Communities in Safer Healthcare. This report is an overview of the n all-day educational program Engaging Minority Communities in Safer Healthcare. It was a public dialogue about patient safety topics and medically induced trauma. Health care representatives from minority communities, as well as patients and their families, shared their experiences, perceptions, and stories to learn how to best serve and support a more diverse population. (22-page PDF)

Patient Centered Care: What Does It Take? This report identifies key factors for achieving patient-centered care at the organizational level including: involvement of patients and families at multiple levels, top leadership engagement, and systematic measurement and feedback. (34-page PDF)

Plain Language: A Promising Strategy for Clearly Communicating Health Information and Improving Health Literacy. This issue brief from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services shows how plain language—communication that is easy to read, understand, and use—can help adults understand health information. Article offers guidance and strategies on how to employ plain language in written and verbal communication.

Tobacco Use in Minnesota: A Quantitative Survey of Members of Minnesota's Latino Communities. This research project aimed to determine the prevalence of smoking among Minnesota’s Latino communities using culturally appropriate survey methods. The report presents key results on smoking prevalence, attitudes toward tobacco use, quit attempts, and secondhand smoke exposure. Produced by the Diverse Racial Ethnic Groups and Nations (DRE GAN) project September 2008. (78-page PDF) Executive summary (6-page PDF)

Tobacco Use in Minnesota: A Quantitative Survey of Cambodian, Hmong, Lao and Vietnamese Community Members. This research project aimed to determine the prevalence of smoking among Minnesota’s Southeast Asian communities using culturally appropriate survey methods. The report presents key results on smoking prevalence, attitudes toward tobacco use, quit attempts, and secondhand smoke exposure. Produced by the Diverse Racial Ethnic Groups and Nations (DRE GAN) project. November 2009. (64-page PDF) Executive summary (6-page PDF)

Toward Patient-Centered Care: Communication as a Mechanism for Change. This report proposes a three-tier mechanism for establishing stronger communication skills that would cultivate a more patient-centered approach to health care delivery and decrease costs associated with medical errors. (11-page PDF)

Language Access Services

Additional reading specific to language access services.

Hospitals, Language, and Culture: One Size Does Not Fit All: Meeting the Health Care Needs of Diverse Populations. This qualitative study explored how 60 hospitals across the country provide health care to culturally and linguistically diverse patient populations, and provides a framework for hospitals to develop and employ practices for meeting diverse patient needs. (60-page PDF)

Organizational Supports

Additional reading aimed at administrators of health care organizations on the topic of cultural competency that helps build organizational supports.

Advancing Effective Communication, Cultural Competence, and Patient- and Family-Centered Care: A Roadmap for Hospitals. Provides recommendations to inspire hospitals to address unique patient needs and comply with new standards for patient-centered communication and existing Joint Commission requirements. Example practices, information on laws and regulations, and links to supplemental information, model policies, and educational tools are also included. The Joint Commission, with funding from The Commonwealth Fund, developed the roadmap in collaboration with the National Health Law Program. (102 page PDF)

Assuring Healthcare Equity: A Healthcare Equity Blueprint. This blueprint builds upon the key themes presented in the 2007 National Healthcare Disparities Report (252-page PDF) and offers strategies and interventions grounded in both quality improvement and in the involvement of patients and their communities, in order to address health disparities. Developed by the National Public Health and Hospital Institute. Must log in through Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI)—no cost—to access. (68-page PDF)

CLAS A-Z: A Practical Guide for Implementing the National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health Care. A step-by-step guide supported by the Office of Minority Health to assist health care organizations in meeting the needs of an increasingly diverse patient population. (121-page PDF)

Joint Commission Standards in Support of Language and Culture. The Joint Commission has studied the provision of culturally and linguistically appropriate health care services through its Hospitals, Language, and Culture: A Snapshot of the Nation (HLC) study. HLC staff have developed several resources that highlight The Joint Commission standards that support the provision of care, treatment, and services in a manner that is conducive to the communication, cultural, language, health literacy, and spiritual/religious needs of individuals.